Thursday, March 15, 2012


If you share my interest in bulk cash smuggling cases, you should review the opinion in United States vs. Toro-Barboza*,  an interesting Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals case. The detailed decision, affirming the trial court conviction of two individuals for bulk cash smuggling and failure to file reports on exporting monetary instruments, resulted in sentences of41 and 46 months.

The individuals, whose vehicle was found to contain $500,087, asserted a number of defenses through their counsel, including lack of knowledge, and  constitutional defenses, which you may find instructive should you become involved in one of these cases.

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Please note the decision, which can also be found on , has the following 9th Cir. case numbers: 10-50487, and 10-50491.

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